16 Jan

kidney failure in reptiles

For reptiles, like birds, the kidney is not the sole organ that functions in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. Kidney failure is a leading cause of death in the older iguana. Reptiles; Small Mammals; Pigs ; Ruminants; Medications; General Information; Meet the Authors ; Page Menu. The purpose of the kidneys is to remove toxins from the body. The information contained here is for general purposes only and is not a substitute for advice from your veterinarian. I have some questions, I want to make sure to do it good If I buy a new cham , 1. As mentioned earlier, MRI , which is superior to CT scanning for evaluating soft tissues, can be used - however, because of limited availability and cost - such imaging techniques are not often employed by general practitioners. Though the initial prognosis may be guarded - if imbalances are corrected, the chance for complete recovery does exist. If left untreated, the kidney infection can be fatal. She also recommended nutri-grub, some sort of worm with calcium in it. The primary reason iguanas develop this disease is due to a diet too low in calcium. All rights reserved. Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Reptiles that continue to appear depressed following a few days of fluids therapy carry a poor prognosis. It is very important to use medications with a large safety margin as drug metabolism and excretion may be significantly affected. Because historical and clinical presentation can vary, the veterinarian must often rely on hematology and biochemistry, urine analysis, radiography, and biopsy to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. Nephrectomy is frequently used to cure renal cell carcinoma. Biomedical and Surgical Aspects of captive Reptile Husbandry, 2nd edition, vol. Any species of tortoise may develop bladder stones as it is thought that renal disease may lead to bladder stone formation, and bladder stones can cause ascending infections of the kidneys due to retained fluids in the bladder. Dogs. Whereas acute onset of renal disease is often due to infectious or toxic causes (Including medications) and appears to effect any age animal and is typically more sporadic in occurrence. Structure. heart failure and atrial enlargement were diagnosed by echocardiography. Where aminoglycoside toxicity is suspected - all medicating should stop and proper osmotic diuresis initiated to rehydrate and maintain appropriate renal perfusion. For hyperphospatemic tetany ( > 24.78 mg/dl / > 8 mmol/L), diuresis and/or intracoelomic dialysis is required. This disease has many factors that work together in causing this condition. Uric acid is actively secreted via the proximal renal tubules. A healthy reptile’s urine specific gravity reflects the plasma osmolality at the time of formation. 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Therefore, the dosages used for reptile patients have been calculated extrapolating from the human dosages. Uric acid is largely insoluble which serves to reduce insensible water losses associated with excretion but does predispose dehydrated animals to gout if plasma uric acid levels rise above 63.73 mg/dl (1487 mol/L)1. If the solubility index rises above (70)/{12} then healthy tissue will start to mineralize, while between (55 - 70)/{9 - 12} mineralization of diseased tissue (i.e. Dog is Having Accidents in the House, But Why? The squamate kidney is metanephric in structure having relatively few nephrons, no loop of Henle nor a renal pelvis. Is it common for chameleons this young to die of kidney failure? Again, though normal bladder urine may not be sterile - if a culture and sensitivity reveals a profuse growth of a single organism, then that bacteria may be significant and appropriate antibacterial treatment is indicated. Vitamin A deficiency leads to changes in the kidney cells, which leads to decreased function and disease. Oral calcium supplements, such as Neo-Calglucon (Nutrobal) are useful for long term calcium therapy. Abscess: First Aid. If your chameleon shows any of these signs, it is likely under-hydrated and under enough water stress to put it at risk of kidney failure. Even with aggressive management, it is unlikely for a reptile to live longer than 6 months once diagnosed with advanced kidney failure. People often misjudge how much water desert reptiles need, or do not recognize the impact of their local conditions on their reptiles. Exotic Animal Formulary, 1st edition.Greystone Publications. Acute renal failure most often is due to an infection or toxins, including environmental toxins and medications. When correct hydration has been achieved, it is vital that over hydration be avoided and therefore a reduction in maintenance fluids to 2 - 10 ml/kg/day is required - but hydration status must continue to be monitored. Once a reptile has recovered from acute kidney failure and is doing well, your veterinarian may suggest routine health screenings and annual wellness visits. In addition, sexually mature male lizards may possess a sexual segment proliferation of the distal tubule. Green iguanas are an example of a species that commonly develops renal failure because they are often kept in a perfect storm of pitfalls leading to dehydration and kidney disease: cage humidity under 80 percent relative humidity; a water bowl too small and/or not cleaned often enough; temperatures that are often too low; and a diet high in dried materials like pellets or biscuits, and/or includes animal protein like dog or cat food. 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