16 Jan

sulu sea map

… The Sultan’s earlier promise in the 1851 agreement not to permit or engage in piracy and to punish those who attempted to do so was developed further in the 1878 treaty. Three Chinese shop owners were killed and several other people were wounded, and every store in town was burned to the ground. General Wood notified Sultan Jamalul Kiram II of the abrogation, and although the Sultan was displeased, he acquiesced, along with most of the major datus of Jolo. Several of the extracts mentioned piratical activities, particularly the raids of Selungun before his exile in 1902.Footnote 136 In relation to the other reported disturbances, however, piracy and maritime raiding were not particularly prominent in the reports. The Sulu Sea is a body of water in the southwestern area of the Philippines, separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago. An ultimate location, Sulu Sea is reputed for beaches as well as famous landmarks and outstanding hospitality. Complaints were made to the American authorities, who stepped up their efforts to suppress the depredations.Footnote 149, In the early months of 1907 it seemed that the repressive measures taken by the provincial authorities, aided by friendly local datus, were having the desired effect of bringing the piracies under control. Meanwhile, it was reported that the sultan and the datus of Sulu were gathering large supplies of arms and ammunition from abroad and that they planned to oppose any American attempts to assert their sovereignty over the Sultanate.Footnote 94, A further blow to American ambitions in Sulu came in March 1899, when most of the Spanish gunboat flotilla – thirteen vessels in all – that had been used to patrol the Sulu Archipelago and adjacent seas was hijacked by Mindanao nationalists. 199 Governor of Moro Province to the District Governor of Sulu, 13 April 1908, THBP 90 (MDLC). The conversion of the Moros to Christianity, however, did not make any significant progress despite the establishment of a Catholic mission at Jolo following the 1876 conquest of the town. 95 Otis, Annual Report, in ARWD 2 (1899), 130–1; cf. Selungun himself still evaded capture, however, and he was believed to have taken refuge in Tawi-Tawi. In that sense the treaty served as a signal to other colonial powers that Spain was committed to the suppression of piracy emanating from its territory and affecting the neighbouring British and Dutch colonies. The datu had the two dead outlaws decapitated and sent their heads to the district governor of Basilan, Major John Finley, for the purpose of identification – a practice that, according to the Mindanao Herald, was an old Moro custom that had been common during the Spanish colonial period. 123 Maj. Lea Febiger, Report of the commanding officer at Cotabato, 4 June 1902, ARWD 9 (1902), 525; Pettit, Report, 16 September 1901, ARWD 9 (1902), 555; Cloman, Myself and a Few Moros, 90; see also 96. 157 The Mindanao Herald (28 December 1907), for example, noted that although there had been numerous attacks on the peaceful Moros of Basilan throughout 1907, the marauders had not, until the end of the year, been so bold as to attack white men. Less than a year after the signing of the Bates Agreement, General Kobbé expressed his doubts about the value of the cooperation against piracy. There are several pearl beds in the group, and marine resources include button shell, mother-of-pearl, coral, shark fins, bêche-de-mer (sea cucumbers), turtle shells, turtle eggs, and sponges. of your Kindle email address below. The Panay Gulf is an extension of the Sulu Sea. With the establishment of regular Spanish naval patrols and of garrisons in Sulu, large-scale organised piracy in and emanating from the region came to an end. Y. Miller, Report of the Governor of Palawan, 15 July 1907, in ARPC 1 (1907), 425–6. Arnold, Moro War, 183, seems to attribute this attack to Jikiri, but he does not state where this information came from or even which attack he refers to. 40; italics in original; my transl. In October 1909, as the trials against the surviving members of Jikiri’s band were still going on, an American-owned plantation on Basilan was raided, and a large amount of moveable property was stolen. They go … to the South of Tawi to destroy the building yard Balingki (I think) where all the large Boats are built and fitted out. 67 Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, 290. See also Hurley, Swish of the Kris, 139–40, for several reports of juramentado attacks in Jolo toward the end of the Spanish colonial period. The United States took over Spain’s colony in the Philippines in 1899 and managed initially to maintain reasonable maritime security, although attacks against indigenous fishermen and Chinese traders and pearl fishers continued. 55 Saleeby, History of Sulu, 214, 221; Tregonning, History of Modern Sabah, 10; Tarling, Sulu and Sabah, 101. 124 See Cloman’s vivid description of the boredom at Bongao in Kobbé, Annual Report, in ARWD 3 (1900), 266. In his book from 1923, by contrast, he wrote that ‘all days seemed like holidays at Bongao’; Cloman, Myself and a Few Moros, 111. The Mindanao Herald probably reflected the general mood when it editorialised that the raid revealed ‘the Moro again in all the savage cruelty and treachery of his nature’ and that the murders had ‘stirred this community to a sense of the dangers which attend the isolated Americans and Europeans who are facing the wilderness with the spirit of the Western pioneers in an effort to push a little farther the bounds of our civilization’. Map 2: The Sulu Sea. Many officers were also eager to take a direct hand in the project of civilising the Moros, both in the Sulu Sultanate and other parts of the southern Philippines.Footnote 132. When the Americans first arrived in the southern Philippines they knew virtually nothing about the Moros, ‘save that they professed the Mohammedan religion and were a warlike people who had always resisted the domination of Spain’, as a contemporary official report put it.Footnote 100 Their military strength was not insignificant, as it was estimated that the Sulu Sultanate could put 20,000 fighting men in the field. 77 Amoroso, ‘Inheriting the “Moro Problem”’, 125; cf. 97 Linn, Philippine War, 132. In the context of these wars maritime raiding, including attacks on the enemy’s commercial vessels and coastal raids for the purpose of taking slaves and booty, and as a means of reprisal, was undertaken by both parties. The term Moro is no longer regarded as condescending, as demonstrated by the inclusion of the term in the name of the two leading secessionist movements in the southern Philippines since the 1970s, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Article 4 of the treaty text in Sulu, as translated into English by Saleeby, read: New promise: Pirates shall not be allowed at all here in Sulu. The British Consul in Manila, George Thorne Ricketts – who, like most British officials, was clearly no admirer of the Spanish colonial administration − wrote: The suppression of piracy can then only be regarded as the ostensible cause, and a desire to propagate the doctrines of the Roman Catholic faith and exterminate Islamism in the South, a love of aggrandisement, the creation of new places for the support of a certain number of officials, a jealousy of foreign influence obtaining any footing within the zone of Spanish rule, and the exclusion of foreign vessels from trading freely with the Sultan’s people are, we may rest assured, the real causes which prompt Spain to aim at this extension of her territory.Footnote 62. The governor-general of the Philippines, José Malcampo y Monge, was convinced that the only way to enforce Spain’s claim to sovereignty over the Sulu Archipelago was once and for all to conquer and occupy Jolo, as recommended by Santiago Patero. On the early ’antipiracy’ campaigns of the Spanish, see Mallari, ‘Spanish Navy in the Philippines’. 16 Warren, Iranun and Balangingi, 86−123. Should they commit any crime they shall be punished wherever they may be.Footnote 36. In particular, the Spanish worried that Great Britain or the Netherlands might try to extend their influence in the East Indies to the Sulu Archipelago if the piratical incursions from the area were allowed to continue unchecked.Footnote 19 The risk of intervention by other European countries was demonstrated in 1845, when France made an attempt to acquire the island of Basilan from the sultan of Sulu. Governor Bliss requested military reinforcements from Manila for the purpose of bringing the perpetrators to account and restoring confidence in the ability of the authorities to uphold law and order in the province, and in early January 1908 a battalion of four infantry companies was dispatched to Basilan.Footnote 164 Their orders were to take Ucbung, where the perpetrators were believed to be still hiding, and to arrest Salip, who was suspected − wrongly, as it later turned out − to have been the mastermind behind the attack.Footnote 165 Meeting no resistance, American troops captured Ucbung, but Salip and his followers had already escaped, and only one man was arrested. When boats and their crews disappear, the natives take it as a matter of course; it is only another case of piracy. 171 Coats, ‘Philippine Constabulary’, 24–5. To this effect the Spanish Governor-General, Fernando Norzagaray, issued a proclamation in 1858 according to which anyone would receive 10 pesos for each captured or killed pirate, provided the latter had been caught in the act, whereas a pirate leader commanded a reward of 50 pesos. An attempt to investigate the claims to the pearling grounds in accordance with the law on pearl-fishing was undertaken by the local authorities in Jolo in September 1907. These developments, combined with the fact that the annual maritime raids emanating from the Sulu Sultanate continued more or less unchecked, cast doubts on Spain’s claim to sovereignty over the southern Philippines. 81 Saleeby, History of Sulu, 233–45. 126 Febiger, Report, 4 June 1902, in ARWD 9 (1902), 525. Scott’s successor as district governor of Sulu, Colonel E. Z. Steever, convened a board for the purpose of carrying out the investigation of the traditional claims to the pearl beds. The Sulu Sultanate had great autonomy in matters concerning internal administration and justice, leading to a double system of justice in Sulu – one for Moros and one for Americans, Filipinos and others – with many anomalies and conflicting or overlapping laws and practices.Footnote 131, Many of the commanding officers in the southern Philippines believed that the policy of noninterference and indirect rule encouraged banditry and general anarchy and disorder. In addition, the wife of one of the men received a deep cut across her back and barely survived. In the Philippines, the raiders ventured as far north as Luzon and even conducted raids close to the centre of Spanish power in the region, in Manila Bay, carrying off hundreds and sometimes thousands of slaves from different parts of the Spanish colony every year. 159 Memorandum for Major Finley and Captain Muir, 3 January 1908, THBP 88 (MDLC); Mindanao Herald (28 December 1907). The raiders then took refuge on Manuc Manka, a small island near Bongao. The government collected 3,300 pesos in shell-fishing licences in Sulu district, equivalent to eleven first-class licences (each allowing the operation of one diver equipped with submarine armour), but there is no mention of the disbursement of the compensation among the expenditures for the year. Wood listed eight reasons why the treaty was detrimental, including: the inability of the Sultan and the datus who signed the agreement to fulfil their obligations; the treaty’s recognition of the ‘authority of a class of men whom we have found to be corrupt, licentious, and cruel’; the frequent juramentado attacks on Jolo Garrison; the continuation of slave-raiding; the stealing of government property by Moros; the general condition of anarchy and impunity; the deficient and allegedly barbarian laws of the Sulu Sultanate; and a recent armed uprising in Jolo led by Panglima Hassan.Footnote 134 The Moros, Wood summarised, ‘are nothing more or less than an unimportant collection of pirates and highwaymen, living under laws which are intolerable, and there is no reason, in view of the numerous acts of bad faith on their part, why the so-called Bates agreement should be longer continued’.Footnote 135. Omissions? In July 1900 Major Sweet reported of the situation in the Sulu Archipelago: The natives of the islands are natural pirates, the multitude of small reefs and islands favoring them. The title of Montero y Vidal’s work was The History of the Malay-Muslim Piracy in Mindanao, Jolo and Borneo, and it covered the whole history of the Moro Wars, from the sixteenth century until the present. If the vessels referred to in the former article be armed, they shall, as our laws direct, be held as pirates and their crews be tried by court martial according to the provisions of the Penal Code. Should they nevertheless attempt to do so, Dewey said, the Navy would consider them to be pirates and run down the gunboats and sink them.Footnote 96 The outcome of the standoff was that the Navy took the seagoing gunboats while the Army was allowed to keep ten shallow-draft steamers, some of which were equipped with heavy cannon and machine guns, to support military operations. 17958 (27 February 1922), in Lauterpacht and Williams (eds.) Traders based in Jolo were attracted to the newly established Zamboanga Exchange, where they were able to sell their products, such as fruit and pearl shells, at higher prices than in the Sulu Archipelago. 10 Warren, ‘ Governors of the Sulu Sea is a Tug currently..., 2, Appendices, 82 arrived and prevented him from taking of! Frake, ‘ Spanish Navy and only fished in the eyes of the Philippines, 53 ( ). According to this explanation, Jikiri turned to a life of banditry because of a physical defect fishing important... 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