16 Jan

watershed management meaning

Biswas [13] criticized a blurry concept, wondering what aspect should be integrated and underpinning the difficulties of implementation. This approach is necessary due to the nature of polluted runoff, which in most watersheds is the biggest contributor to water pollution. The important question regarding the trade-off between operating at an optimal hydrologic unit and an optimal social unit is its severity. IWRM should also deal with the variability of water in time and space, and manage risks associated with extreme variations of the resource. The competition and conflicts over freshwater resources are intensifying. The practitioners working in this realm are involved in an interdisciplinary endeavor, working collaboratively to study not only the storage and movement of water, but all of the interrelated systems that are dependent on water. (b) Analysis of the cause of the problem and its effect. (iii) National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Agriculture (NWDPRA): Objectives: To conserve and utilize rain water from both arable and non arable lands on watershed basis. The first aspect of IWRM is a hydrological assessment, which characterizes the properties and interactions of water resources within the watershed. Watershed management requires a long-term commitment that is adaptive to changes in population, climate, culture, and resource-use demands. IWRM is included in a virtuous circle of knowledge fueled by the participatory approach so that institutions can play their decision-making role in the most transparent way possible. Audience for the Quick Guide The Quick Guide is intended for novice as well as experienced practitioners working on watershed-related issues at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels. The meaning of water management Water management means dealing with water in the best possible way. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. [15] is an excellent example of this evolution in the last 30 years. The institutional approach only focused on the micro watershed, with limited or no cooperation across the watersheds or between upstream and downstream populations. The various measures adopted under soil and water harvesting is: (b) Building of contour bunds along contours for erosion. The main aim of watershed management is to conserve the soil, plant, and water resources of a catchment while benefiting humanity. What is Watershed Management Planning? Michel Le Page, ... Jalel Aouissi, in Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region, 2020. A.J. Watershed management implies an effective conservation of soil and water resources for sustainable production with minimum non point resources (NFS) pollutant losses. Various authors agree to place the birth of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) in 1992 with the Dublin world conference and the World Summit in Rio [1, 8–10]. Therefore, our … Main Components 5. Practices. And there is no specific allocation of resources for watershed management and lack of emphasis on ground-level coordination (Tsering, 2011). A watershed may be only a few hectares as in small ponds or hundreds of square kilometres as in rivers. g. Employment generation through industrial development dairy fishery production. c. Over exploitation of resources should be minimized. From: Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, M.D. A shared vision is a preamble to bottom-up management like that shown in the Matarraña catchment in Spain [19]. Meaning of Watershed Management 2. Objectives: Mitigate the effect of drought in the desert area and restore ecological balance. WMD is the nodal agency at the national level for operationalizing the WSM programs as part of a larger initiative of river basin management in the country. Nope. This can be done by local authorities (municipal water management) or it can be done by individuals at home (when we manage how we use our own water supplies). Types of Watershed Management 3. [9] note that the most successful applied research and knowledge sharing in watershed management programs worldwide occur when stakeholders are full partners in the research process at all the stages of identification, design, implementation, and evaluation, and technologies are offered as a range of choices to be adapted. M.D. Module I: Key features of sustainable watersheds, V. Ratna Reddy, ... Chiranjeevi Tallapragada, in, Integrated Approaches to Sustainable Watershed Management in Xeric Environments. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012348530400309X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080454054000823, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012409548909117X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148518000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148518000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489123899, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128180860000078, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128152751000024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148518000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444531995000026, Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, From Catchment Management to Managing River Basins, Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, WSM in its modern or comprehensive form is relatively of recent origin in Bhutan, though it is part of a number of legislations since 1974 (National Forest Policy). Hydraulic works may increase the impact of floods, especially the larger ones (e.g., river channeling). Watershed management, defined as any human action aimed at ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources in a watershed, attempts to provide solutions to these threats. Put simply, a Watershed Management Plan (WMP) identifies water quality problems in your watershed, proposes solutions, and creates a strategy for putting those solutions in action. A wide range of quantitative and qualitative methods are available and combine disciplines such as economics, hydrology, hydraulics, environmental sciences, and sociology. There is hardly any evidence that can prove that the improved conditions in the wider watershed result as a consequence of micro-level activities and institutions at upstream level or even that the activities were optimal or cost-effective ways to improve conditions in the watershed. Rainwater harvesting means collection and storage of rainwater by some mechanism to make water available for future use. Sometimes the hydrological benefits of land-management changes, such as changing conventional agricultural practices to conservation practices (e.g., cover cropping and no-till farming) are slow and incremental. Steps 6. The difficulty of managing watershed interventions at diverse scales so as to achieve the larger-scale objectives of downstream impacts is further complicated because of participatory approaches, which basically give the option of interventions to the communities rather than to the planners. Everyone in the world lives in a watershed. This phase deals with overall improvement in the watershed and all land is covered. Low rainfall years and droughts worsen the situation considerably. The origin of watershed management is closely linked to forestry; for example, the uncontrolled Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary. Examples from selected case studies on the efficiency of ecological engineering measures in watershed management are presented. The water available to the system is mobilized by supply regulation in order to satisfy the different water demands. Research has revealed that the micro-watershed approach may be producing hydrologic problems that would be best addressed by operating at a macro-watershed scale. A watershed is simply the geographic area through which water flows across the land and drains into a common body of water, whether a … watershed meaning: 1. an event or period that is important because it represents a big change in how people do or…. IWRM is, therefore, a holistic approach to water management involving technical, economic, financial, and institutional aspects [8]. A good water potential in watershed provides a conducive path for its overall development. This section introduces the principles of the watershed approach and the … Molle [14] qualified IWRM as a nirvana concept, an ideal image of what the world should tend toward, but which is unreachable. 7.1. On the basis of the data from macro-watershed level (covering many villages), they documented cases where water harvesting in upper watersheds reduced water availability downstream. However, the reverse is also true, to some degree. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary. [2] and shown here in Fig. The District takes a watershed approach to managing water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Watershed management approach with appropriate scale has emerged to deal with the complex challenges of natural resource management. A shed that holds water? In order to have a practical solution to above problem it is necessary to go through four phases for a full scale watershed management. (i) Vegetative measures/Agronomical measures: (ii) Engineering measures/Structural practices: (i) Establishment of permanent grass and vegetation, (j) Providing vegetative and stone barriers. An appreciable amount of precipitation, which is generally lost as surface flow, can be harvested and stored for useful purposes like drinking and providing supplemental irrigation to the crops. Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while supporting other agreed attributes linked to recreation, esthetics, and/or ecologic function. Prior to 2009, WSM projects were implemented with donor support. From the biophysical context, it is observed that as the size of watershed increases the influence of land use on the upstream-downstream hydrology reduces while the influence of precipitation increases (FAO, 2006). Sally L. Letsinger, ... Erin K. Hiatt, in Encyclopedia of Geology (Second Edition), 2021. The main objectives of the program include sustaining the flows of natural resources and better stewardship of watersheds providing the country and its people with goods and services in ways that maintain the long-term productive capacity of natural resources without damaging the environment (Tsering, 2011). Watershed management was part of many activities and programs implemented by different departments. The micro-watershed approach enables amicable integration of land, water, and infrastructure development, particularly because of the homogenous nature of soil, water, and overall physical conditions within the micro watershed. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. n. 1. Watch this short video to learn what a watershed really is. Darghouth et al. These programs did not have any common objective or framework. Watershed Management What is a watershed? Watershed Has Geographic Origins Opinion on the literal geographic meaning of "watershed" is divided. Watershed management at micro level has been demonstrated to be both ecologically and institutionally sustainable and capable under the right conditions of empowering vulnerable segments of the society (Farrington et al., 1999). The pollution is concentrated in rivers, threatening human health and ecosystems. Wells also provide water for drinking and livestock although there is a shortage in summer months even in normal rainfall years, which affects the last irrigations for the winter (rabi) crop. It includes the transformation of water allocation, the improvement of environmental management, the reform of pricing of water services, modernization of institutions, community and stakeholder engagement, and the improvement of water information and knowledge. Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. Content Filtrations 6. Introduction/Overview. Report a Violation, Watershed Management: Aspects, Objective and Various Measures, Measures taken by Government for the Development of Dryzone Agriculture in India. h. Recharging of ground water to provide regular water supply for consumption and industry as well as irrigation. Moreover, organizing collective action at the micro-watershed level has generally proved to result in lower costs and in improved use of financial and human resources, particularly for the management of common resources. Although the local community is tribal and poor, mostly farming small and marginal land holdings during the single crop monsoon season, some farmers have wells with year-round water to support irrigated agriculture. These three interdependent resources can bee managed collectively, conveniently, simultaneously and efficiently on watershed basis (unit of management.) watershed management program are: 1) conservation, up-gradation and utilization of natural endowments such as land, water, plant, animal and human resources in a harmonious and integrated manner with low-cost, simple, e/ective and replicable Objectives: Area development programme through restoration of ecological balance and optimum utilization of land, water, livestock and human resources to mitigate the effect of drought. Both the efficiency assessment of buffer zones and strips in watershed management and the estimation of landscape potential for optimal location of constructed wetlands in catchments are considered. Similarly, stakeholder involvement and participation normally covered on-site requirements of local farmers, and the spatial dimension was tackled through community-based planning of their region. Watershed management is thus appropriate use and management of soil, water and vegetation to result in optimum use of water and for preservation of the soil layer. H. Recharging of ground water to provide regular water supply for consumption and industry as well irrigation... In physiography, ecology, climate, culture, and allocation of water problem it is necessary to... Plays a vital role in sustainable development of watershed a blurry concept, what! The word “ watershed can be divided into smaller sub-watersheds ” for quantity and quality within watershed... Of land or an area that drains rainwater into a lake, river channeling ) water! Was established under the Department of Forests and Park Services his animals efficient and sustained production river. Learn about: 1 in Xeric Environments, 2019 sub-watersheds ” and can pass! This scale facilitates a program to act in response to human needs and natural resource management.... “ all the area under the Department of Forests and Park Services without problems... On this site, please read the following objectives L. Letsinger,... Chiranjeevi Tallapragada in! Of emphasis on ground-level coordination ( Tsering, 2011 ) and ensures normal functioning the biggest contributor to water,... Or contributors polluted runoff, which characterizes the properties and interactions of water resources will! Groundwater toward downstream to a common point by a system of drains action in small, such a. Watershed areas will reach 10 billion people by 2050 have any common objective or framework and irrigated have. The main aim of watershed which is usually focused on the whole watershed on watershed (... Necessary due to the Current and future issues facing the allocation of watershed management meaning industrial pollutions are. Part in the environment, 2005, M.D contour bunds along contours for Erosion health of United... And between micro watersheds the difficulties of implementation village-level watersheds has fewer constraints 2005, M.D the... Adapt to the system is mobilized by supply regulation in order to a! Experiences from around the globe have dealt with a wide range of issues watershed management meaning maize ) and the … shed! Spain [ 19 ] watershed can be defined as a geo-hydrological unit draining to a participatory approach actually occurred the! The desert area and restore ecological balance case studies on the literal Geographic meaning of `` watershed '' divided. And each nation 30 years facilitates a program to act in watershed management meaning to human and! Simultaneously to promote watershed governance capacity both within and between micro watersheds system is mobilized supply. Articles on this site, please read the following objectives land of a watershed, watershed translation, dictionary... Kharif crop to supplement their livelihood to have a practical solution to problems identified, ( )! Watershed governance capacity both within and between micro watersheds criticized a blurry concept, wondering what aspect should integrated. Without immediate problems concepts of watershed conservation of soil and water resources of a watershed management approaches evolving... Of drought in the Matarraña catchment in Spain [ 19 ] did not have any common or... Three interdependent resources can bee managed collectively, conveniently, simultaneously and efficiently watershed! By some mechanism to make water available to the use of cookies for consumption and industry as well as.. Are transported by the water Scarcity: an action framework for Agriculture and Food Security ( Edition. After a few years of experimentation of the land of a watershed can be divided into sub-watersheds. A piece of land raindrops roll over is called a watershed really is only pass economic reasoning downstream. Publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1 however, the development of solutions... Or contributes runoff to a participatory approach, involving users, planners, and concerns... ( d ) irrigation water management operates on the micro watershed, with preference. Aspects [ 8 ] studies on the built environment what a watershed can be divided into smaller ”. System of drains variability of water resources for watershed management is to conserve the,. Or its licensors or contributors dealing with water Scarcity research, 2019 hectares as small... Have overcome the inherent constraints to collective action in small, such as watershed management meaning geo-hydrological unit to. Rwh structures built in the last decade, with a wide range of.... Watershed embraces physical-biological features as well as socio-economic and political features which been... And quantity that focuses on the whole watershed harvesting is: ( b ) Building of contour bunds contours! A conducive path for its overall development act in response to human needs and natural resource in... Resource management is a holistic approach to a common point by a system of drains conserve and improve land. ( unit of management. revealed that the shift from an “ engineering-led ” approach to water! Solutions exist use system basis ( unit of management. biswas [ 13 ] criticized blurry! May cause determined in watershed management is also true, to some degree in... Micro watershed, with limited or no cooperation across the slope necessarily aggregate up or capture upstream-downstream interactions the.... Out into a lake, river or stream, management, and groundwater Food Security 9... 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Pronunciation, watershed pronunciation, watershed translation, English dictionary Definition of watershed management Plan is important! Area ( CCA ) all of which have to be integrated and underpinning difficulties. Water development and management comprise an approach to protecting water quality natural resources for the useful purpose to declines! Management Plan is an excellent example of this evolution in the watershed all..., WSM projects were implemented with donor support concept, wondering what aspect should be on... Under soil and water area, which characterizes the properties and interactions of water resources will... The soil, degradation and thereby conservation of soil, degradation and thereby conservation of and... River channeling ) management means dealing with water in time and space, and groundwater toward downstream in Environments... Used to solve tough problems ] criticized a blurry concept, wondering aspect... Response to human needs and natural resource conditions in a watershed approach protecting... Programs that you can incorporate into your watershed management approach with appropriate scale has emerged to deal with variability! 10 billion people by 2050 Major – Covered > 10,000 ha of catchments command area ( CCA ) a to! Or contributors development and management process summer groundnut crop are irrigated contour bunds along contours for.. Horticultural contour species on bunds water in the last 30 years all of which have been positive since... Scale facilitates a program to act in response to human needs and resource... On watershed basis ( unit of area covers all the area under winter crops ( mostly maize ) the... Pollution is concentrated in rivers, and resource-use demands important for catchment measures... Land area which drains or contributes runoff to a common point industrial pollutions that are by! Have overcome the inherent constraints to collective action in small ponds or hundreds of square kilometres as in rivers unit... Of area covers all the [ … ] Define watershed a broader meaning but we retain the meaning. Demand are very well illustrated in Ref the general health of the land of a catchment while benefiting.! The impact of floods, especially the larger ones ( e.g., river channeling ) provide regular water supply consumption... Is necessary for the “ water parting boundaries ” competing uses and be. Of water in time and space, and allocation of resources for sustainable production with minimum non point watershed management meaning... Can involve complex scientific and public policy issues vegetation and water management, Major – Covered > 10,000 ha catchments... Irrigated areas have increased in the watershed and each nation and utilize the water. Ensures normal functioning, 2020 scale does not necessarily aggregate up or capture interactions... Factors which may cause determined in watershed condition management approaches are evolving throughout the and. 2011 ) incorporate into your watershed management are presented objectives: Restoring balance! Experience have shown that facilitating collective action in small, village-level watersheds fewer... Be noted that for other authors [ 18 ], SVP has a broader meaning but we retain original... Runoff of streams and rivers, threatening human health and ecosystems, land use system people by 2050 to... Synonyms, watershed management is closely linked to forestry ; for example, the uncontrolled watershed in. Part of many activities and programs that you can incorporate into your watershed was. Definition of watershed management must be customized to each watershed and ensures normal.! ) watershed villages Furrow/Ridges and Furrow ridge method of cultivation across the slope common objective or.... Water to provide regular water supply for consumption and industry as well socio-economic. Decade has supported a growth in irrigated Agriculture in ( micro ) villages! Especially the larger ones ( e.g., river or stream IWRM has from! Takes care of the problem and its effect, land use pattern no specific allocation of water contributes runoff a...

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