16 Jan

pentose phosphate pathway also known as

This stage of the route will connect the metabolic processes that generate NADPH with originating NADH/ATP. Course TitleBIO 361. In adult brain the flux through the pentose shunt pathway is approximately 5% of the rate of glucose utilization, but brain tissue has a huge excess capacity that is revealed by incubation of brain slices with an artificial electron acceptor, phenazine methosulfate, which stimulates the pathway by 20–50-fold. HMP also known as the Pentose phosphate pathway. This is the only known reaction producing CO2 in mature RBCs. This second process is a complex sequence of reactions that let you change the C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7 pentose sugars to form finally glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, which can go directly to glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway (also known as the phosphogluconate pathway or the hexose monophosphate shunt) provides a route by which glucose can be oxidized to carbon dioxide. The NADPH is one of the important coenzymes for the microsomal for the liver microsomal, Cytochrome-P450 Mono-Oxygenase system. Note that SBPases and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases are related homologous enzymes, that differ by about 75%. Fructose‐6‐phosphate, the hexose, is a glycolytic intermediate and can enter that pathway at this stage. It has an oxidative phase (NADPH generation) … NADPH is necessary for a variety of biosynthetic reactions, some of which are highly active during brain growth and maturation (e.g., lipid biosynthesis) and some that are involved biosynthesis of neuroactive compounds, e.g., nitric oxide synthase, as well as in degradation of catecholamine neurotransmitters (monoamine oxidase). NADPH is a competitive inhibitor of glucose-6-P DH, indicating that consumption of NADPH and formation of NADP+ provides the required substrate for the reaction which is dependent on continuous supply of glucose-6-P that can be derived from blood-borne glucose or glycogen. The pentose phosphate pathway. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is v ariously called as Warburg-Dickens pathway and hexose monophosphate shunt. As in the case of glycolysis, the substrate for the pathway is glucose-6-phosphate. The pentose phosphate shunt (also known as the hexose monophosphate shunt or the 6-phosphogluconate pathway) shares the intermediates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate with the glycolytic pathway. This is TPP dependent enzyme. In addition, it is used for the production of ribose for nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis. Then, the latter becomes ribulose-5-phosphate by the action of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. It is a source of NADPH and ribose-5-Phosphate for nucleic acid biosynthesis. It generates NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars) as well as ribose 5-phosphate, a precursor for the synthesis of nucleotides. The diagnosis was suspected by elevated concentrations of ribitol, D-arabitol, and erythritol in urine and was confirmed by enzyme studies in cultured fibroblasts. The pentose phosphate pathway produces pentose phosphates (for nucleotide synthesis) and NADPH (reducing agent for biosynthetic processes). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and a lactonase catalyze the first committed step of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway which is a strategic control point. In the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Pathway, few molecules of Glycolytic intermediates are produced these are directly involved in Glycolysis. Sequence of Reactions in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway: The enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle occur in the extra-mitochondrial soluble portion of the cell, the cytosol. It is the pathway for the formation of pentose sugar. The fate of glucose whether to undergo glycolysis or the hexose monophosphate pathway is decided by the relative concentrations of NADP + and NADPH. In astrocytes, the pentose phosphate shunt pathway is fueled by glucose and glycogen, whereas neurons are dependent on glucose. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) produce high CO2, which ultimately break down by carbonic anhydrase to form H+ and HCO3– (Jiang et al., 2014). Why the pentose phosphate pathway is called hexose monophosphate shunt? The PPP serves. PPP is regulated oncogenically and/or metabolically by numerous factors, including tumor suppressors, oncoproteins, and intracellular metabolites. Recently patients with single defects in the nonoxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway have been discovered. [1] It generates NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars) as well as ribose 5-phosphate, a precursor for the synthesis of nucleotides. PPP has two major functions: production of NADPH and making of Ribulose-5-phosphate (R5P). In chemistry, a pentose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) with five carbon atoms. The 6-aminonicotinamide analog of NADP does not participate in hydride transfer reactions (11), and is an exceptionally potent inhibitor of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Ki = 1 × 10−7M) (11). Thus alteration of the PPP contributes directly to cell proliferation, survival, and senescence. Also known as the pentose phosphate shunt, Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) is one of the metabolic pathways (the others being glycolysis and Krebs cycle) that specifically serves to produce NADPH (Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a reduced form of NADP+) and ribose 5-triphosphate (R5P).. Products of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway are essential for normal cell … Stine, ... C.V. Dang, in Pathobiology of Human Disease, 2014. Hereby, 3-keto 6-phosphogluconate occurs as an unstable intermediate. The pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative to glycolysis and generates NADPH (oxidative phase) and pentoses (5-carbon sugars, nonoxidative phase). No ATP consumed or produced. Note that SBPases and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases are related homologous enzymes, that differ by about 75%. The net effect of the metabolism of 3 molecules of G6P through the PPP is as follows (Eaton and Brewer, 1974): G6PD is the rate-limiting reaction in the PPP under physiological conditions. This is the pathway for the synthesis of ribose for nucleotide synthesis (section. An outline of the pathway is shown in Figure 15.1. About 10% of glucose molecules per day are entering this pathway. Pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative route for the oxidation of glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis which generates NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars) as well as ribose 5-phosphate. Introduction. Thus the annotation of these two genes is not always correct! For this purpose we have employed 6-aminonicotinamide, which is converted into a compound closely resembling NADP. Mean ± S.E.M. The pathway begins with the glycolytic intermediate glucose 6-p. Also known as phosphogluconate pathway or the hexose monophosphate shunt, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism. Pentose phosphate pathway also called HMP pathway that stands for Hexose Mono- Phosphate Pathway. Then, again Transketolase enzyme transferring a C2 unit, from Xylulose-5-phosphate to Erythrose-4-phosphate, thus form another molecule of Fructose 6-phosphate and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, both are intermediates of glycolysis. In mode 2, 1 molecule of G6P makes 1 molecule of R5P and 2 NADPH. The latter two build erythrose-4-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by transaldolase. It is a source of NADPH and ribose-5-Phosphate for nucleic acid biosynthesis. The following anaerobic part of PPP allows the conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate to intermediates of glycolysis. In mode 4, 3 molecules of G6P make 6 NADPH, 8 ATP and 5 pyruvate and NADH that can be used to create more ATP. What are … 3.6). This pathway takes place in all the cells. The pentose phosphate pathway (also called “Phosphogluconate pathway” or “ Pentose Phosphate Pathway ”) occurs in the cytoplasm. In this first step, the C1 group is dehydrogenated to give a group carboxyl, which, next to C5 forms a lactone, i.e. What is Gluconeogenesis? The qualitative interconversions that take place are summarized in Figure 14.13, in which stoichiometry is ignored. 3.6). The pathway uses several steps and different enzymes to achieve this. An important function of the NADPH is its role as a cofactor in the glutathione reductase and peroxidase systems to eliminate hydrogen peroxide that is produced by various cellular reactions. The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway is also called as the phosphogluconate pathway or hexose monophosphate shunt. After a second round what is left is a pentose. In helping students learning the cycle, instructors can focus on the build-up of one triose phosphate to a pentose by two successive aldolase reactions, each followed by removal of two carbons. The enzyme transketolase catalyzes their reaction to seduheptulose-7-phosphate and glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate. What is the pentose phosphate pathway important for? • It occurs in cytoplasm of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes The other mol of xylulose-5-phosphate reacts with the erythrose 4-phosphate, yielding fructose 6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Pentose phosphate pathway is also known as the ‘hexose monophosphate shunt‘ (HMP) or just shunt pathway, and the ‘phosphogluconate oxidative pathway‘.The pentose phosphate pathway occurs in the cytosol of the cell. Figure 5.14 The pentose phosphate pathway (also known as the hexose monophosphate shunt). When the Erythrose-4-Phosphate reacts with Fructose-6-Phosphate gives Xylulose-5-Phosphate and Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate. It is not known whether they occupy a compartment separated from the enzymes of glycolysis which are also … Also known as the pentose phosphate shunt, Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) is one of the metabolic pathways (the others being glycolysis and Krebs cycle) that specifically serves to produce NADPH (Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a reduced form of NADP+) and ribose 5-triphosphate (R5P). [1] It generates NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars) as well as ribose 5-phosphate, a precursor for the synthesis of nucleotides. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) is one of the key metabolic pathways occurring in living cells to produce energy and maintain cellular homeostasis. The hexose monophosphate pathway is used for the production of NADPH from NADP. In summary, the overall reaction glucose-6-P plus 2 NADP+ generates ribulose-5-P+CO2+2 NADPH+2 H+. Home » Intermediary Metabolism » Carbohydrate metabolism » What is the Pentose Phosphate Pathway and its Significance? The first phase is oxidative and irreversible.Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is converted via series of steps into Ribulose-5-phosphate.The most important catalytic enzyme is Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD), … 8.4. Furthermore, a large substrate reserve for this pathway is present in well-fed animals in the form of glycogen. The series of cytoplasmic reactions known as the pentose phosphate pathway are also called the hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt (or cycle) or the phosphogluconate pathway. Although the pentose phosphate pathway can completely convert glucose-6-phosphate into CO2 (see Fig. As the first enzyme in the PPP (G6PD) is the most common enzymatic deficiency in humans and has few ill effects, the PPP represents a cancer pathway that could be inhibited with limited side effects in normal tissues. The HMP shunt is an alternative pathway to glycolysis and is used to produce ribose-5-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128120194000131, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864567019122, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838643000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128023945000042, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123704917000076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080215235500468, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122146749500047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595652000368, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128194607000116, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123971791000038, Diabetes, a Potential Threat to the Development and Progression of Tumor Cells in Individuals, Sayantan Maitra, ... Pradipta Banerjee, in, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions for Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome (Second Edition), Deregulation of the Cellular Energetics of Cancer Cells, http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/figures/1471-2164-9-597-6-1.jpg, http://synergyhw.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-missing.html, Christina Werner, ... Michael Schwarzer, in, The Scientist's Guide to Cardiac Metabolism, Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals (Sixth Edition), THE ROLE OF REDUCING EQUIVALENTS GENERATED IN MITOCHONDRIA IN HEPATIC MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATION1, Ronald G. Thurman, ... Frederick C. Kauffman, in. One of these alternate pathway is the pentose phosphate pathway or also called as hexose monophosphate pathway in which oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate takes place to produce pentoses. 6-Phospho Gluconate is converted into Ribulose-5-Phosphate by eliminating CO2 from Carbon one of Glucose, in the presence of the enzyme 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Here NADPH second molecule is obtained, in addition to the release of a molecule of CO. Pentoses, in particular ribose-5-phosphate, are utilized in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids. It gives Sedoheptulose-7-Phosphate and Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate by the enzyme Transketolase. Since pentose shunt flux is stimulated by the addition of aminopyrine (13) and by barbiturate-pretreatment (14), reducing equivalents for mixed-function oxidations have been considered to arise via this pathway. Critically, converting one molecule of glucose to ribulose-5-phosphate during the oxidative phase of the PPP converts two NADP + to two NADPH. Whether glucose-6-phosphate enters the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway or the glycolytic pathway in plant cells is critical to our understanding of respiratory glucose metabolism. How … The reaction is carried out epimerization, regulated by the pentose-5-phosphate epimerase enzyme, which converts the ribulose-5-phosphate, a product of the oxidative phase, xylulose-5-phosphate, thereby generating the necessary substrate for controlled by the following reaction transketolase, which acts together with coenzyme Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP). The Pentose Phosphate Pathway also allows the entry of some carbohydrates into the glycolytic pathway (especially ribose, but also some others), and therefore acts as a connection route between different pathways. PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY Also known as:  Pentose shunt  Hexose monophosphate shunt  Phosphogluconate pathway  It occurs in the cytosol. These two carbon fragments are subsequently combined with a triose to make a pentose. R5P is needed for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, ATP, NAD, FAD, CoA, etc… The HMP Shunt, also known as the Pentose Phosphate Pathway or the Phosphogluconate Pathway, is a biochemical pathway that serves as an alternative metabolic pathway for glucose. Pentose Phosphate Pathway is the alternative Glucose oxidative pathway. Muscle has small amounts of some of the  Pentose Phosphate Pathway enzymes,  because it has little need for synthetic reactions, and therefore, little need for  NADPH. Carbon 1 is released as CO 2 and two NADPH produced. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is converted via … This is the pathway for the synthesis of ribose for nucleotide synthesis (section. •The pentose phosphate pathway is an alternate route for the oxidation of glucose where ATP (energy) is neither produced nor utilized. This is an alternative Glucose oxidation pathway. It reconnects with glycolysis because two of the end products of the pentose pathway are glyceraldehyde 3-p and fructose 6-p; two intermediates further down in the glycolytic pathway. The hexose monophosphate shunt, also known as the pentose phosphate pathway, is a unique pathway used to create products essential in the body for many reasons. The first phase is oxidative and irreversible. The PPP branches after the first step of glycolysis and consumes the intermediate glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) to generate fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) through the oxidative and non-oxidative branches of the PPP. The pentose phosphate pathway is a sequence of events a cell uses to convert a type of glucose into other molecules. Cancer cells have higher cytoplasmic utilization of glucose (glycolysis), even in the presence of oxygen; this is known as the "Warburg Effect". The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP; also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a process that breaks down glucose-6-phosphate into NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars) for use in downstream biological processes. In mode 3, 1 G6P makes 12 NADPH (starting with 6 molecules of G6P oxidized to 6 ribulose 5-phosphates, the ribulose 5-phosphates can be “rearranged by the pathway to form 5 G6Ps.” The overall stoichiometry is: 6 G6P + 12 NADP+ → 5 G6P + 12 NADPH + 6CO2 + Pi). A marked increase in its activity in sliced potato root during aerobic respiration was also observed. The remaining reactions in the PPP are nonoxidative and freely reversible. Additionally, the nonoxidative phase of the PPP gives rise to erythrose-4-phosphate, which can contribute to the formation of aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, and tyrosine. In the next step, 6-phosphogluconate is converted to ribulose-5-phosphate by NADP+-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), also known as the phosphogluconate pathway or the hexose monophosphate shunt, is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis, and represents the first committed step of glucose metabolism(6). So the PPP may rather be seen as a cycle instead of a linear pathway. NADH is needed to reduce GSSG (2 glutathione molecules joined by a disulfide bridge; the oxidized form of glutathione) to GSH (glutathione), particularly in cells, such as the red blood cell that are subject to oxidative stresses and the production of H2O2 and free peroxy-radicals. Ribulose-5-Phosphate is isomerized into Ribose-5-Phosphate by the enzyme “Phosphopentose isomerase”. This pathway also produces ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), which is required for adenine nucleotide synthesis (Eaton and Brewer, 1974). Sayantan Maitra, ... Pradipta Banerjee, in Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions for Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome (Second Edition), 2018, Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a critical role in regulating cancer cell growth by supplying cells with not only ribose-5-phosphate but also NADPH for detoxification of intracellular ROS, reductive biosynthesis, and ribose biogenesis. This can reenter other glycolytic pathways such as glycolysis or the HBP (see later in the chapter). Note that glucose-6-P can be derived from blood-borne glucose and from glycogen in astrocytes. What is the pentose phosphate pathway also known as? About 10% of glucose molecules per day are entering this pathway. Control of the chloroplast isoform by the NADPH/NADP+ ratio may therefore be amplified by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. Hexokinase activity was also … Ribose-5-Phosphate is the precursor molecule for nucleotide synthesis. 6-P-Gluconate and NADP+ are the substrates for the second step, oxidative decarboxylation, that releases carbon 1 of glucose as CO2. It is a metabolic pathway that occurs in all types of cells and tissues. Like glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway happens exclusively in the cytoplasm and it doesn’t require any special organelles which means that all of our cells can use this pathway. All SBPase sequences carry a PTS1 suggestive of a glycosomal location, where it probably functions in a modified pentose-phosphate pathway (Hannaert et al., 2003). The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is an alternative way of glucose use. Alternatively, focus can be put on the transketolase reaction. About 91% of total NADP is in the reduced form in horse RBCs (Stockham et al., 1994) and 92% to 99% of total NADP is NADPH in human RBCs (Kirkman et al., 1986; Zerez et al., 1987). The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) is one of the key metabolic pathways occurring in living cells to produce energy and maintain cellular homeostasis. Perhaps the reason for this is that it does not really have a single direction in which it proceeds, as will be apparent below. The nonoxidative branch of the pentose shunt pathway involves interconversion of intermediates via transketolase and transaldolase reactions that can regenerate fructose-6-P and glyceraldehyde-3-P. The muscle, however, like all tissues, needs to be able to synthesize Ribose in order to make nucleotides and nucleic acids. Thus, the four modes of PPP function are shown diagrammatically in Fig. The pentose phosphate pathway is outlined in Fig. The PPP gives rise to several critical products for cancer metabolism, including a pentose (5-carbon sugar), ribose-5-phosphate. NADPH is utilized to reduce oxidized glutathione to GSH, the substrate for the glutathione peroxidase reaction, and it is bound to catalase, preventing and reversing the accumulation of an inactive form of catalase that is generated when catalase is exposed to H2O2 (Kirkman et al., 1987). Finally, the transaldolase, with the help of a rest Lysine in the active site, transfers a unit C3 sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which will form the tetrose Erythrose-4-phosphate, in addition of one of the first end products: fructose 6-phosphate, which is directed towards glycolysis. The enzymes for HMP shunt are present in the cytosol of the cell. It is very different from the other pathways, where it neither releases ATP nor consumes ATP during the process. This will convert Xylulose 5-phosphate into Ribose-5-phosphate and, by transferring unit C2 of the aldose to ketose, will produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate. The first step in the metabolism of glucose through the PPP generates NADPH from the oxidation of G6P in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) reaction. NADPH is a potent competitive inhibitor for the enzyme (Under some conditions). Subsequently, following anaerobic transformation of ribulose-5-phosphate delivers no energy but new glucose-6-phosphate. Ashihara & Komamine (1976) purified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the hypocotyls of Phaseolus mungo seedlings and showed that inhibition by NADPH was inversely related to pH. number of livers in parenthesis. Physio Chemical Properties of Amino acids? Fructose‐6‐phosphate, the hexose, is a glycolytic intermediate and can enter that pathway at this stage. 7.5). This enzyme neutralizes the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from hydroxyl peroxide molecules. Figure 7.2.1: Pentose Phosphate Pathway The ratio of NADPH/NADP+ appears to be the principal factor regulating the flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. The cycle is sometimes called the reductive pentose phosphate pathway but this is a misnomer given that the reduction step is clearly gluconeogenic. The non-oxidative reaction of the pentose phosphate pathway catalyzes the interconversion of 3, 4, 5 and 7- carbon sugars. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) generates NADPH, the major source of reducing equivalents in the protection of RBCs against oxidative injury. Its aerobic part leads to ribulose-5-phosphate, carbon dioxide (CO2), and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). R5P is produced from ribulose 5-phosphate by the R5P isomerase reaction. Both the cytoplasmic and chloroplastic isoforms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from pea leaves are activated in the dark (low NADPH/NADP+); light reactions of photosynthesis generate NADPH. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), also known as the phosphogluconate pathway or the hexose monophosphate shunt, is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis, and represents the first committed step of glucose metabolism . Consists of two irreversible oxidative rxs followed by a series of reversible sugar phosphate interconversions. The oxidative branch consists of two sequential steps that convert glucose-6-P to ribulose-5-P. Ribulose-5-Phosphate is converted into Xylulose-5-Phosphate; in the presence of the enzyme “Phosphopento epimerase” this reaction is one of the examples to Epimerization. The pentose shunt pathway is not the only source of NADPH, but it is likely to be the major supplier due to its activation by oxidative stress and exposure to peroxides. The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis. However, the relative amount of glucose metabolized in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis remains unclear. The similarity of the reduction step to gluconeogenesis was pointed out in the original description of the cycle (Bassham et al., 1954). The first reaction is the oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate, carried out by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Learn how your comment data is processed. Also known as phosphogluconate pathway or the hexose monophosphate shunt, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism. In this reaction, NADP+ acts as a coenzyme. Gerald A. Dienel, in From Molecules to Networks (Third Edition), 2014. Transaldolase deficiency, described in eight patients, was associated with deafness in one patient (Wamelink et al., 2008). Isomerization and epimerization of ribulose-5-phosphate allow the formation of ribose-5-phosphate and xylolose-5-phosphate. Transketolase is a thiamine pyrophosphate (vitamin B1)-dependent enzyme, and, along with pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the enzyme is affected by thiamin deficiency (beriberi). Normally, the G6PD reaction in intact human RBCs operates at only 0.1% to 0.2% of the maximal enzyme activity, as determined in hemolysates under optimal conditions. (HMP Shunt).

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