16 Jan

rites of passage examples in different cultures

2. Rites of Passage ●A ceremony, ritual or event that marks a change in life or status ●Most cultures have ceremonies to mark birth, adolescence, marriage and death, but how they mark these occasions varies greatly ●Some rites of passage are marked by elaborate ceremonies while others are more informal A representative example is afforded by the traditional rites surrounding childbirth as these were commonly … After graduation, you have so many choices to make and figure out what you want to do in life such as find a higher paying job with more benefits, go to college, enter the military, and so on. With this help and guidance, John found God more easily. Some ceremonies are religion-specific, such as Jewish Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Christian baptisms and confirmations. His definition of rites of passage constitutes three rites: separation, transition, and incorporation. In conclusion, adolescent rites of passage mark the transition to adulthood. Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, my audience will understand how cultures use adolescent rites of passage to help people mark the transition from childhood to adulthood. The information further empowers the women to make important decisions and be more influential in village issues, thus becoming more independent and completing their transformation. Other rites of passage celebrate changes that are wholly cultural, such as initiation into societies composed of people with special interests—for example, fraternities. Ultimately, John experiences a vision during a moment of prayer. John leaves his current state to become part of the church. A rite of passage is a ceremony and this ceremony marks the transition from one phase of life to another. During the period before he leaves he will also be advised by a medicine man regarding his coming quest. James Baldwin depicts this kind of maturity in Go Tell It On The Mountain via the protagonist John Grimes. Rites of passage are diverse, and are found throughout many cultures around the world. Through this definition, John earns his spot in his family and his spot as a man. In this scene, John experiences a vision in which he encounters an impasse of deciding to become saved or to become damned. In the United States, questions have been raised as to whether rites of passage like those used by Africans, Native Americans, or others might be useful in helping with social problems. Do you recall your graduation ceremony? Additionally, an intended rite of passage offers the space for the society to convey its core values and grant the role obligations appropriate to the initiate’s stage of life, thus assuring cultural endurance. The second phase known as the liminal phase is the time where you have left one status, which is your high school student status, but not yet have entered the next status, which is high school graduate. In many so-called primitive societies, some of the most complex rites of passage occur at puberty, when boys and girls are … Though coming-of-age ceremonies do not automatically make us adults, they are the milestones of a maturing process we are all on. When his mother says that Roy played in the wrong part of town, it further supported this realization. James Baldwin contrasts the sub-themes in an effort to gauge maturity in all aspects of John Grimes’s life. Some celebrate it as a party with near and dear ones, some choose to decorate their bodies with tattoos and piercing, while some like the Native Americans choose to go on a quest in search of enlightenment and growth. The traditional American wedding ceremony is such a rite of passage. 2. The use of alcohol or drugs as a rite of passage into adulthood differs from the use of conscious altering drugs during rites of passage in traditional societies in that conscious altering drugs have a low to moderate psychological dependence compared to the use of drinks and drugs (Piehler & Dishion, 2014). He verbalizes, It was white folks that tried to cut your brother s throat (Baldwin 45). Most families using conscious altering drugs have implemented steps to ensure safe contexts for individuals undergoing a psychedelic experience. These rituals can be performed individually or collectively. a. It is a threshold or boundary as well as a ‘space’ in its own particular right, as the time and place where the people going through the rite are cut off from the broader structure of society, and placed in brief, negligible positions. It is always going to be worth it, remarkable in your life. Each different culture or society may choose to mark these rites in very different ways. What I’m saying is that they are not right and are not ok, but it’s their way of proving themselves and the others something, that they are as worth it as each of its partners. The liminal phase started when Raybeck participated in the village guard duty, “Jaga”, which allowed him to gradually integrate into the society. Although it is often used to describe the tumultuous transition from adolescence to adulthood, it does refer to any of life’s transitions (Births and Beginnings, Initiations, Partnering, and Endings or Death). The rituals may be less ceremonial and without the intent of actually being an initiation, but the psychological drive is still apparent. The rites of passage of Islam provide Muslims with meaning as they progress through different life-stages. In Western culture, we are familiar with such rites … The conflict, however, does not affect John much because one affects him on the micro-level and the other on the macro level. Rites of passage marking very important events customarily include all three stages described by van Gennep: separation, transition, and reincorporation. These rites are violent in a way that they end up teaching them something that any other experience as that one can. There is a sponsor that is assisted by a nonanetu, which is a common villager, who has sons between the ages six and nine, and they also participate in this ritual. Through the course of the novel, however, he undergoes a change that makes him further understand his family. Both rituals had a collective experience, in which the ceremony was done as a group rather than an individual. II. They even feel the need to be accepted in their society and it has always been the same but in so many different kinds of societies. In order to prepare for graduation, there are some steps I had to take in order to make it through this process. ”. Rites of passage aren’t always just to be in a social society they also are to become part of the culture or even their religious society. During this seclusion, they can not leave and they can not be visited. Among the Kalapalo of Central Brazil, there is a rite of passage for boys that involves ear piercing. Referring back to Van Gessep s analysis of rites of passage, the analysis drawn can show that incorporation and separation exist as opposites. For the boys, this involves removing the foreskin of the penis. The first phase begins by being withdrawn from ordinary society. (2014). fComparison with Common U.S rites of Passage. Other rites of passages include male and female circumcision. BODY I. Rites of Passage in Cultures: Puberty is often a signal in most cultures that a boy or girl is ready to become an adult. All content on this page is verified and owned by Essayscollector Team. Yet if you were an Arunta from Australia, it might be the moment you rose off of the smoking tree branches you were lying upon and were proclaimed an adult. This situation where Raybeck changed the villagers’ views of him but still did not gain enough of their trust to talk about the internal affairs of the village, perfectly represented the process within the liminal phase; the individual is neither in his initial status nor his new status. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Don’t waste Your Time Searching For a Sample. (2016, Jul 19). Transition in patriarchy primarily takes the form of changing from an order-accepting child into an order-giving adult. The act implied that Mat and Yusof had faith in Raybeck as they had shared their misdoings (Raybeck, 1996, p. 67). c. Rites of passage like these, says psychologist Michael Gurian in the Spokesman-Review article, promote positive self-image because they force children to develop skills to meet challenges, to reflect on goals, and to learn leadership. The project Rites of Passage wishes to contribute to the creation of a harmonious society by bringing attention to the value of the diversity as well as to the similarities of different people and peoples. deadline 6 hoursWriters: ESL, Prices start at $9Min. With the dancing still being held, the fathers of the boys collect expensive ceramics so they can pay the ear piercers. And that isn’t the only thing that matters to some but to honor their families or friends. a.The MAAT Program attempts to instruct at-risk African-American males on social behavior through sessions with older mentors that incorporate African tribal tradition. The Algonquin Forgetfulness Ritual. For forever, people want to be accepted. A quinceañera is a rite of passage in Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Central and South American countries. However, this misconception can lead to unhealthy behaviors where adolescents engage in these risky behaviors for approval. After your name had been called and you shook hands with the administration and faculty that were standing up there, you were now considered a high school graduate. Many western societal rituals may look like rites of passage but miss some of the important structural and functional components. It would always in some way make you feel part of a community. Some are even dangerous and really nasty. In this mini-unit we will study these significant rites of passage and how different cultures uniquely mark these changes as they come to pass in the lives of their people. Knowing that Raybeck did not share or exploit the knowledge that was given to him, the villagers began to trust him and were more willing to share sensitive information with him. Rites of passage were first described by anthropologist Arnold van Gennep (1960) as a way of accepting the many rituals and rites observed in conventional cultures, and their significance to the dynamics of both individual and group life within the culture. The ritual marks the passage from child to adult male, each subgroup having its customs and expectations. These can be achieved through mass media campaigns and community training that can be tailored to change some of the negative social norms in society and increase skills for resisting drugs (Stanis & Andersen, 2014). Yet our diversity prevents us from having a single experience, common to all, that celebrates our entrance into the adult community. Many different experiences may be considered "rites of passage" that distinguish an adolescent from an adult. Girls are forced to eat large quantities of food. The Navajo of the American Southwest celebrates this milestone with the vision quest. By contrasting the sub-themes, Baldwin effectively describes the multitude of ways in which John progresses. The ritual begins when a fifteen to a sixteen-year-old boy is taken into a sweat lodge, where he will be purified in... 2. New or old traditions, they are important and valuable to many different cultures. Every day men and women of the village would prepare the boys for the ceremony by singing and dancing with them and applying an herbal infusion to their earlobes which is to prevent them from bleeding. Rites of passage are used to mark a life stage and are celebrated by tradition or religion, meant to separate a specific group. In fact, the rest of John s life would become dominated by religion. Sometimes a rite isn’t for you to be a part of a society, sometimes its for you to feel like you are part of one such as a first communion or getting a job, and sometimes is for you to make your own community. This will help in changing the beliefs associated with the use of drugs during rites of passage. 3. Bridging the Gap: Adolescent Rites of Passage General Purpose: To inform. Cultural people do rites to honor their families and to take place in their culture, in some of these cultures it is necessary to do some rites to be on them, in most cases is the rite of passage that prepares you for marriage and the rite of becoming an adult. Each different culture or society may choose to mark these rites in very different ways. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Program sessions begin by prayer and an offering of a drink to the ancestors. The boys are put back into their original seating and the sponsor imitates the cry of the bird in which the feathers for the headdress were taken. Her love is exemplified in her recognizing of his birthday. In the pre-liminal phase, there are symbolic behaviors to indicate an individual’s detachment from their current social structure and their previous social status (Froggatt, 1997). A typical birth ritual among the Ndebele-speaking people of Zimbabwe begins with the woman leaving her husband during her ninth month of pregnancy to go to her own parents' home. Such as the confirmation or bar mitzvahs. For example, there’s a rite called “the white coat ceremony” for doctors; that is when you finish your studies and have your first official coat. This may include a change of dress, a change in the geological area, or ritual cleansing. One example of this occurs when John commences a dialogue with his mother in which he learns that his father beats him because he loves [him] (Baldwin 25). After the speeches are done, four of the faculty members begin to call out names by rank if you wore white, which means you had a 4.0 GPA or higher, and in alphabetical order, if you wore green. Rites of passage take place on getting accepted in society by showing or proving or doing something or sometimes the rites are for them to learn their new roll-on society and all that marks a person’s lives changing its whole self and turning it into something that belongs somewhere, in a certain society. In this paper I will be discussing two rites of passage, one from a society in Brazil and one from personal experience. But when it comes to religion, some rites are very important because it doesn’t only mean that you are accepted in their religious community but that you truly believe in that religion. We were not allowed to sit with our families. In the field of religion, John transforms from residing in the pews to one commanding in the pulpit. I once heard of the rite of passage of a culture that woman had to be circumcised and I just thought that it was unnecessary and ridiculous for it to be the transection for a girl to a woman. According to Kottak (2011), “All rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation. A typical example to demonstrate the concept of a “rites of passage is a Jewish wedding. 3. Baldwin also compares the three sub-themes in order to display the similarities of John s passage. There are also smaller but important rites that belong to small things such as work. Through this new role, Rayback started to gather information and he thought he had accessed the inner workings of the village. He realizes that his father is mean at times, but only to protect his family. From Aborigines in Australia to New York, rite of passage is used to separate the men from the boys. The preparation for this ceremony beings two months before the actual event starts. Instead, all 500 of us had to be placed in our class ranking order according to GPA and sat accordingly. Rites of passage Religious people often have ceremonies to mark significant life events. All comments and user reviews are moderated by Essayscollector Team. These proceedings add to John s definition of his family. According to Van Gennep, he identifies this as incorporation (97). John only achieves his salvation and religious acceptance at the end of the novel. Initiation ritual of boys in Malawi. Perhaps some are yet mired in that no man’s land called adolescence. Finally, he ventures into the wilderness or desert on his own, fasting until he receives a vision that will determine his new name and the direction of his life. Your email address will not be published. On the first night of the ritual, as the boys continue to be danced around and sang around their liminal symbols are the cotton belts, shell collars, and yellow feather headdress worn during the ritual. During this huge 15th birthday party, which is both a social and religious event, the family celebrates the young woman’s passage … John must conquer the right of his manhood through his family. Patriarchy provides many dissimilarities from racism. In the second month, they are allowed to eat anything except for fish and in the third month, they are sent on a fishing trip with their father and other adults. In addition, a transition occurs in patriarchy and religion. One way of reconciling a drug-free perspective for American youth with acceptance of rites of passage in tribal and traditional society involves educating individuals on the effects of using drugs during this process (Stanis & Andersen, 2014). Better or more difficult. In religion, John accepts the doctrine of love; in contrast, racism causes John to comprehend the hate that his race encounters. Most Americans perceive alcohol consumption and the use of other substances as a rite of passage. Firstly, in a Jewish wedding, it is traditional for the bride and groom to remain separated for the week before their wedding. Pritzker, S., & Minter, A. For example, Kelantanese middle-aged mothers have control over family finances and intricate network of connections through their trips to the market, which holds extensive information of current affairs in the village (Raybeck, 1996, p. 181). In addition, John also begins to realize the importance of his mother. In one way, John became more mature and aware of himself in matters of religion. In Washington and the entire United States, rites of passage are becoming more popular as a way to fulfill the spiritual and moral needs of youth while identifying them to a community. John however must undergo a number of tests in order to become one of God s servants. Then, there is a date set for the ritual and only hosts and assistants usually attend the ritual itself, although other village groups are invited. Rites of passage are ordered into three phases. The female’s passage into womanhood is her first menses. Through this portrayal, Baldwin exposes the prejudice that a black man would experience. John s anger acts as a response to his father’s abusiveness; this anger erupts into such a fiery hatred that he hopes for the day when his father would be dying (Baldwin 21). In conclusion, rites of passage are an essential part of every culture and they have significance in how they help an individual to find their individuality and purpose within the society. These rituals are rooted in ancient traditions and support girls’ psychological and spiritual development. Elijah aids John through his trial. In this mini-unit we will study these significant rites of passage and how different cultures uniquely mark these changes as they come to pass in the lives of their people. However, Baldwin makes it evident that John completed his rites of passage. Some rites of passage aren’t exactly as easy or as sweeter as others. When he receives his vision, the community welcomes him back as a man (Transition)Like their male counterparts in the Navajo, females also have a special coming of age rituals. Doesn’t matter how hard, silly, big, small, easy can a rite of passage be. The examples of Raybeck’s fieldwork in Kelantan and Kelantan women’s transition through life well illustrated the concept of rites of passage. Most of the boys in this culture participate in this ritual. Baldwin performs this through John s experiences with religion. Regardless of the method, bridging the gap between childhood and adulthood is , and will always be , one of the most universal and important milestones of human life. d. In this way, African-Americans use the rite of passage concept to develop a positive sense of identity for youth. In some cultures, the dead are taken to a crematory, and in other cultures, the dead are given a burial. Even in Washington State, rites of passage are growing. 63-64). They leave as children only to return as men. Think again about what you consider to be your “rite of passage. Rites of Passage: Douglas Raybeck’s fieldwork in Kelantan. Although at first John does not comprehend this message, after some time, he begins to understand the role of his father. It is often a period in which the initiates are taught those things that will be needed to function in the new social position. 1. 4. After the room is cleaned thoroughly, no one is allowed into it until the mother is nearing the time for the delivery. At the start of Raybeck’s fieldwork in Kelatan, although he did some minor preparation such as learning the language and culture in the hope of understanding the new culture prior to the actual fieldwork, they proved to be of little help as Raybeck and his wife, Karen still experienced multiple culture shock during their initial weeks (Raybeck, 1996, p. 21). 10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.06.022. Although the ceremony was tedious, I would rather share the experience and enjoy it with my friends and family. Both examples consist of similar structures – the process of separation, transition, and reincorporation. There is a break in the ritual where the boys are allowed to relieve themselves so they will not urinate or defecate on themselves while being pierced. The voice then whispers sardonically, all niggers had come from the most undutiful of Noah s sons (Baldwin 197). Adventure Education programs, su… He identified sets of habitual behavior that accompanied changes of place, state, social position, and age. As the women age, get married, and give birth, their participation in economic and social life increases is when the liminal phase begins as they begin to learn more norms and go through rituals such as childbirth and the gathering of information through social interactions. However, there are still a select few who take on the traditions of their ancestors by living out in the harsh frozen tundra. This misconception is perpetuated through cultural norms where people believe that drinking is a social facilitator where friends can meet and enjoy alcohol (Piehler & Dishion, 2014). Additionally, he and Karen adopted Malay names and wore the Kelantanese Malay traditional costumes to assimilate better into the culture. As he was not part of the people, the villagers generally viewed Raybeck through hostile lenses and treated him as an outsider. Rites of Passage. This statement makes John thoughtful; he begins to understand that society contains many white people that hate the black race. Marriage is considered an important rite of passage in the two cultures due to the meaning it bears with respect to societal continuity. In the case of any content-related problem, you can reach us through the report button. For example, in the sub-theme of religion, incorporation, and separation occurs. In many ways, the most sinister ritual of them all, the effects of … John s first encounter with this racism occurs when white boys stabbed his brother Roy. It enables them to wear toucan feather earrings, which is an important male ornament, and the acquisition of adult names. Baldwin foreshadows this through a quote: Everyone had always said that John would be a preacher when he grew up, just like his father (Baldwin 11). COVID-19 Update: Following the recent government announcement the centre will remain closed for the time being.Read More It is the limbo or “timeout” during which people have left one status, but haven’t yet entered or joined the next (p.354)They mark a change in social status, place, condition, or age. In this video I will demonstrate how different cultures express their rites of passage and share my own experience. After John completes his rites of passage for religion, he finds himself part of a larger community. They have existed throughout human history and may be a significant factor in the development of a stable adult personality. The second, or liminal, the phase is the most interesting. And by all of this, you can say that a rite of passage is a way of making yourself and others feel like you are a new different changed person. In the first phase, people withdraw from ordinary society and leave behind their old status, In the third phase, they reenter society, having completed a rite that changes their status. It makes you realize and connect with other people that have been through the same that you have. ”. However, in many Native and African-American communities, traditional Rites of Passage programs are conducted by community-based organizations such as Man Up Global. Through his efforts to learn proper societal behaviors and participating in village events, Raybeck had completed his post-liminal phase by transforming himself from a foreigner to a fellow villager; an outsider to an insider. (2020, Oct 03). This may be different for individuals using alcohol and other drugs where some of these drugs are unregulated (Pritzker & Minter, 2014). The Kalapalo call this ritual ipoñe and it is very important to them as it symbolizes the differences between men and women. Western society has no such widely practiced … This contributes to the ending of the novel in which John forgives his father. With this problem in mind, many Americans are turning to tribal traditions like the ones described earlier to help their children have a positive rite of passage. In a few moments, which seem like an eternity for John, he cries, Takes me through (Baldwin 204)! Even in tribes or cities or smaller groups. The father can only give food to them through an opening. The ear-piercing sticks are given to the ear piercers and they begin polishing and making instruments. In many cultures, this is used to mark the socially recognized transition to sexual maturity. But in the end, they are worth it. It is a time where your social status changes from high school student to a high school graduate. On their return, they are officially released from seclusion and are able to return back to their homes. The fathers of the boys begin to place portions of food in front of their sons and instruct them to share the food with the crowd. Finally, it is during the post-liminal phase that the individual returns to his/her social settings, and attains new rights and commitments. On the Sambia tribe, doing homosexual acts and digesting another man’s semen is as important to the Sambia culture as a simple confirmation to a Christian community. 1. In order for John to complete his rites of passage, he must forgive his father and thus accepts Christ s doctrine of love. Separation occurs when the decision is made by an anti, which is a village representative, for a boy to enter puberty seclusion and is of a proper age to get his ears pierced. Now let’s look at the increasing popularity of traditional rites of passage in the United States. The African-American community is turning back to its cultural roots to aid social ills among young males. One last sub-theme that John must pass to achieve his rights of passage takes the form of patriarchy. In traditional rites of passage quests, it usually involves A male moving from boyhood to manhood by being separated from his family and village and enduring periods of isolation and tough challenges to see if he can survive on his own and once he sees this vision that will become his guardian spirit, he then returns back to his village as an adult. For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). Making their lives sweeter or bitter. c. At the end of the program writes Aminifu Harvey and Julia Rauch of Health and Social Work magazine, the boys “mark their passage to manhood by giving themselves another African name, based on their personality, at the final retreat.

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